Medical studies

No medical device approval has yet been applied for for the biozoom measuring devices. They must therefore not be used for medical diagnoses. Nevertheless, they are used by renowned clinics to clarify specific questions in medical research. There are several reasons for this: On the one hand it is due to the high measurement accuracy when detecting biomarkers such as carotenoids and on the other hand to the non-invasive measurement technology of the MSRRS sensor. This measurement technology allows researchers to generate more data than would be possible with classic analysis by taking blood. This is a great advantage, because the more data that can be collected in a study, the more precisely the medical questions can be answered. In addition, there are ethical considerations and the associated higher costs that speak against taking blood too frequently.


The biozoom measuring devices are widely used for clinical issues. It ranges from neonatal research and nutritional studies to issues in space research. The following brief presentation of the study results is based in most cases on the abstracts published in the studies.



Vegetable Study Japan 2021


Although vegetables are beneficial for human health, many countries do not meet the recommended intake of vegetables. In order to be able to assess vegetable intake, it is important to understand vegetable consumption. Therefore, the researchers carried out a cross-sectional and intervention study on 26 healthy people (50% women; 37.0 ± 8.9 years) and estimated the vegetable intake on the basis of the cutaneous carotenoid level (CCL), which was measured with the biozoom sensor. The researchers hypothesized that consuming vegetable juice can increase CCL. The participants consumed vegetable juice with 350 g vegetables every day for 4 weeks. Blood carotenoid levels and CCL were measured for 12 weeks. The cross-sectional analysis showed a significant positive correlation between CCL and vegetable intake (r = 0.489). Consumption of vegetable juice significantly increased CCL and blood levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene (p <0.05). The correlation coefficient between blood level and CCL for lycopene was smaller (r = 0.001) than that between blood level and CCL for α-carotene (r = 0.523) and β-carotene (r = 0.460), probably due to the bioavailability differences. In summary, the researchers conclude that the non-invasive skin carotenoid measurements are effective in determining vegetable intake, and that vegetable juice significantly increases the CCL. Hayashi, H .; Sato, I .; Suganuma: "Cutaneous Carotenoid Level Measured by Multiple Spatially Resolved Reflection Spectroscopy Sensors Correlates with Vegetable Intake and Is Increased by Continual Intake of Vegetable Juice"; Diseases 2021, 9, 4. More about the study here


Study of Metabolic Syndrome Japan - 2020


To review the usefulness of non-invasive measurements of skin carotenoids in detecting vegetable consumption and to clarify relationships between skin carotenoid levels and biomarkers of circulatory disorders and metabolic syndrome, the researchers conducted a cross-sectional study of a residential health exam (n = 811; 58% women; 49.5 15.1 years). Skin and serum carotenoid levels were measured by reflectance spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Vegetable consumption was estimated using a nutrition questionnaire. The values ​​of 9 biomarkers (body mass index [BMI], brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV], systolic and diastolic blood pressure [SBP and DBP], homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], blood insulin, fasting blood sugar) [FBG], triglycerides [TGs] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) were determined. The skin carotenoid levels were significantly positively correlated with serum total carotenoids and vegetable consumption (r = 0.678 and 0.210, respectively). In women, higher levels of skin carotenoids were significantly associated with lower BMI, SBP, DBP, HOMA-IR, blood insulin and insulin and TG levels, and higher HDL-C levels in women. In men, they also correlated significantly with BMI and blood insulin levels. In summary, dermal carotenoid levels can provide an indication of vegetable intake, and the higher dermal carotenoid levels are associated with a lower risk of circulatory disease and metabolic syndrome. Matsumoto, M .; Suganuma, H; Shimizu, S .; Hayashi, H .; Sawada, K .; Tokuda, I .; Ihara, K .; Nakaji, S .; "Skin Carotenoid Level as an Alternative Marker of Serum Total Carotenoid Concentration and Vegetable Intake Correlates with Biomarkers of Circulatory Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome"; Nutrients 2020, 12, 1825


Study on UVB erythema and UVA pigmentation - 2020


Background: The photoprotection of human skin is defined as the ability of sunscreens to prevent erythema induced by UV-B radiation and pigmentation induced by UV-A radiation. It is clear that, in addition to sunscreen, oral carotenoid supplementation can protect human skin from UVB-induced erythema. It is not known whether this also applies to pigmentation induced by UVA radiation. Objective: Clinical evaluation of the photoprotective effects of daily supplementation with carotenoids against UVA radiation-induced pigmentation. Methods: In a marginalized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study, 60 subjects (Fitzpatrick types II-IV) received Nutrilite ™ Multi Carotene Supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. The UVB-induced minimum erythematous dose (MED), the UVA-induced minimum pigmentation dose (MPPD) and the carotenoid level of the skin were measured at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the intervention. Skin color was assessed by experienced clinical evaluators and by colorimetry. The carotenoid levels in the skin were measured with the Biozoom® device. Results: In the intervention group, a significant increase compared to the placebo group was observed with regard to (a) the carotenoid level of the skin, (b) the UVB-induced MED and (c) the UVA-induced MPPD values, which were determined by colorimetry. Conclusion: The daily supplementation with carotenoids protects the human skin against both UVB-induced erythema and UVA-induced pigmentation. Baswn, SM; Marini A .; Klosner, AE; Jaenicke, T; Leverett, J .; Murry, M .; Gellenbeck, KW; Krutmann, J .: "Orally administered mixed carotenoids protect human skin against ultraviolet A-induced skin pigmentation: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial"; Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine 2020; 36: 219-225


Study of supplementation with fruit and vegetable juice - 2017


Background: A diet rich in fruit and vegetables and a healthy lifestyle are becoming increasingly important in industrialized countries in order to counteract oxidative stress and promote health. For many years it has been possible to check human skin carotenoids non-invasively by means of resonance Raman spectroscopic systems and by spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy. Methods: Ten volunteers took a commercially available fruit and vegetable extract daily for a period of 5 weeks. A second group served as a control group and did not take any supplements (10 subjects). In order to monitor the status of the cutaneous carotenoids non-invasively, an optical sensor based on multiple spatial resolution reflection spectroscopy was used once a week. Results: The study showed that taking the supplement significantly increased skin carotenoid levels in young adults by 50%. The control group without supplementation also showed significantly increased values, namely by 10%, which could be due to the fact that their lifestyle was controlled. Conclusion: The results show that biofeedback by measuring skin carotenoids can improve the lifestyle of young adults and that regular consumption of fruit and vegetables directly or as a drink can significantly increase the concentration of skin carotenoids. Meinke, MC; Lohan, SB; Quiver, W .; Magnussen, B .; Darvin, ME; Lademann, J .; "Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy to monitor cutaneous carotenoids during supplementation of fruit and vegetable extracts in vivo"; Skin research technology; 2017: 1-4


Use in space research NASA Q1- 2016


The fact that our antioxidant measurement is medically and scientifically recognized internationally is made clear by its use in NASA's space program. The biozoom measuring devices are part of the “Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) Campaign” and will be used in the USA for the upcoming experiment “Effects of 30 days of Isolation and Confinement on Hippocampal Volume and Visuo-Spatial Memory” as well as in the international one NASA project in China. The primary goal is to investigate the influence of isolation in the HERA Habitat on the structural and functional plasticity of the brain, cognitive performance and subjective well-being and their relationships with neurophysiological biomarkers. The projects are scientifically supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR).



Scientific validation of the biozoom MSRRS sensor - 201


The non-invasive measurement of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin is one of the most important tasks to study skin physiology in vivo. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy are the most commonly used non-invasive techniques in dermatology and skin physiology. In the present study, an improved method based on multiple spatial resolution reflection spectroscopy (MSRRS) was presented. The results obtained were compared with those of the "gold standard" method of resonance Raman spectroscopy and showed strong correlations for the total carotenoid concentration (R = 0.83) and for lycopene (R = 0.80). The measurement stability was confirmed to be better than 10% in the entire temperature range from 5 ° C to + 30 ° C and in the pressure contact between the skin and the MSRRS sensor from 800 Pa to 18,000 Pa. In addition, blood samples from the test subjects were analyzed for the carotenoid concentration. The MSRRS sensor was calibrated for the carotenoid concentrations in the blood, which resulted in a prediction with a correlation of R = 0.79. Using the blood carotenoids, it could be shown that the MSRRS skin measurements are not influenced by Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI. Darvin, E .; Magnussen, B .; Lademann, J .; Quiver, W .; "Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood"; Laser Physics Letters, 2016, volume 13, number 9


Neonatal Scientific Study - 2015


The antioxidant potential of pregnant women and newborns was examined in a dissertation at the University of Rostock. It is known that pregnancy and childbirth lead to a conditional increase in free radicals. Up to 80% of newborn deaths in the first month of life are caused by diseases associated with the formation of free radicals. This study showed that during labor and one day after the birth, the mother's antioxidant potential decreases sharply, while the newborn has a significantly higher level. In some cases, the measurements could even be used to predict the due date.


School study - 2014


Cutaneous carotenoid levels correlate with a person's overall antioxidant status and can be seen as a biomarker of diet and lifestyle. 50 high school students were initially measured spectroscopically for their cutaneous carotenoid concentrations in a static phase, followed by an intervention phase with biofeedback of their measured values, this time leading a healthy lifestyle and eating healthy food. The subjects had higher carotenoid concentrations than found in previous studies. A significant correlation between healthy lifestyle habits and a high antioxidant status was found. The subjects improved their eating habits and significantly increased their carotenoid concentration during the intervention. A follow-up examination five months later showed a consolidation of the increase. The research shows that a healthy diet and a balanced lifestyle correlate with high levels of cutaneous antioxidants and that spectroscopic biofeedback measurement of cutaneous carotenoids as part of an integrated prevention program is a feasible and effective means of increasing health awareness in adolescents. Ruo-Xi, Y .; Quiver, W .; Darvin, M .; Büttner, M .; Jung, S .; Na Lee, B .; Klotter, C .; Hurrelmann, K .; Meinke, M .; Lademann, J .; "Spectroscopic biofeedback on cutaneous carotenoids as part of a prevention program could be effective to raise health awareness in adolescents"; Journal of Biophotonics, 2014 Nov; 7 (11-12): 926-37  


Study on the influence of the stressor shift work on antioxidant levels - 2013


Laser spectroscopic methods, such as B. the resonance Raman spectroscopy and the reflection spectroscopy, allow us for the first time to examine the antioxidative status in the human skin non-invasively by measuring the carotenoid concentration. The individual antioxidant concentration of the human skin is determined on the one hand by eating habits and on the other hand by stressors such as B. Shift work, determined. Shift work is associated with insomnia and gastrointestinal disorders, among other things, due to the disruption of the circadian rhythm and melatonin secretion. In the present study, the cutaneous antioxidant concentration of midwives was determined for the first time by means of reflection spectroscopy and the results were related to shift work. Seven midwives participated in the study. A compact, LED-based scanner system was used for the non-invasive measurement of carotenoids in human skin. The measuring principle is based on reflection spectroscopy. The present study suggests that the cutaneous antioxidant status can be negatively influenced by shift work. Despite the numerous international strategies of programs promoting healthier diets, there are only a few measures aimed at reducing and managing stress. In this area, the use of reflection spectroscopic examination methods could play an important role in the future. Maeter, H .; Briese, V .; Gerber, B .; Darvin, ME; Lademan, J .; Olbertz, DM; "Case study: in vivo stress diagnostics by spectroscopic determination of the cutaneous carotenoid antiodidant concentration in midwives depending on shift work"; Laser Physics Letters, 2013, 10


Scientific validation of the biozoom sensor with grating spectrometer - 2012


Based on important in vivo and in vitro studies on human skin, it is believed that carotenoids as powerful antioxidants can prevent the damage induced by free radicals, including premature aging and the development of skin diseases such as cancer. Available techniques that are suitable for the non-invasive determination of carotenoids in human skin include resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and reflection spectroscopy (RS). An LED-based miniaturized spectroscopic system (MSS) for the non-invasive measurement of carotenoids in human skin was developed for the RS. The optimization and subsequent calibration of the MSS was carried out with the help of the RRS. A strong correlation between the carotenoid concentration determined with the RS and for the RRS system was achieved for human skin in vivo (R = 0.88) and for bovine udder skin in vitro (R = 0.81). Darvin, M .; Sandhagen, C .; Quiver, W .; Sterry, W .; Lademann, J .; Meinke, C .; "Comparsion of two methods for non-invasive determination of carotenoids in human and animal skin: Raman spectroscopy versus reflection spectroscopy"; Journal of Biophotonics 2012 Jul; 5 (7): 550-8


Scientific collaboration


In the field of measuring carotenoids, biozoom has been working with Prof. Dr. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Lademann together. Prof. Lademann is one of the most important experts in the non-invasive measurement of carotenoids in the skin. As an internationally renowned scientist, he conducts research at the interface between dermatology, pharmacology and biophysics. In 2000 he was appointed professor of dermatology at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. He is editor of the journal "Skin Pharmacology and Physiology", the "Journal of Biomedical Optics", the "Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology", "Laser Physics Letters", "Cosmetic" and the open access "Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering" ". From 2003 to 2008 he was President of the "International Society of Skin Pharmacology and Physiology". Since 2008 he has been a member of the Cosmetics Committee of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Germany). In 2010 he became a member of the Lighting Technology Standards Committee, department "Radiology", at the German Institute for Standardization e. V. (DIN) and accepted into the Leibniz Society of Sciences in Berlin in 2012. He is President of the IFSCC (International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists). Biozoom works with Prof. Dr. in the field of heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse measurement. Thomas Loew together. Since 2001, Prof. Loew has been a regular professor for psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy at the University of Regensburg and chief physician of the psychosomatic department there, as well as chief physician of the psychosomatic ward at the Donaustauf Clinic. From 2004 to 2009 he was first chairman of the German Society for Psychosomatic Medicine and Medical Psychotherapy, which emerged in 2006 from the German Society for Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy and the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy and represents the area in Germany. (For a detailed description, see


Further publications on the use of the Biozoom scanner in scientific studies


Bich Na Lee et al., “Influence of chemotherapy on the antioxidative status of human skin”, ANTICANCER RESEARCH 36, 4086-4096, 2016 - to the article


Maxim M. Darvin et al., "Comparison of two methods for noninvasive determination of carotenoids in human and animal skin: Raman spectroscopy versus reflection spectroscopy", Journal of Biophotonics 5, No. 7, 550–558, 2012 - to the article


Maxim M. Darvin et al., “Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood”, Laser Physics Letters, 13, 2016 - to the article


Kerstin H. Gehlich et al., “Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with improved mental and cognitive health in older adults from non-Western developing countries”, Public Health Nutrition, 1-8, 2018 - to the article


Kerstin H. Gehlich et al., “Consumption of fruits and vegetables: improved physical health, mental health, physical functioning and cognitive health in older adults from 11 European countries”, Aging & Mental Health, 2019 - to the article


Sora Jung et al., “Antioxidants in Asian-Korean and Caucasian skin: The influence of nutrition and stress”, Skin Pharmacol Physiol 27, 293-302, 2014 - to the article


Julia Klein et al., "Noninvasive measurements of carotenoids in bovine udder by reflection spectroscopy", Journal of Biomedical Optics, 17 (10), October 2012 - to the article


Julia Klein et al., “Analysis of the correlation dermal and blood carotenoids in female cattle by optical method”, Journal of Biomedical Optics 18 (6), 2013 - to the article


J. Lademann et al., “Skin carotenoids as marker substances for nutrition and stress”, Cosmetic Medicine, 1.15, 2015 - to the article


J. Lademann et al., “Cutaneous carotenoids: The mirror of lifestyle”, Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 27, 201-207, 2014 - to the article l


Hanne Meater, “The cutaneously measurable antioxidant potential of pregnant women and newborns”, Dissertation University of Rostock, 2012 - Download


H. Maeter, “Case study: in vivo stress diagnostics by spectroscopic determination of the cutaneous carotenoid antioxidant concentration in midwives depending on shift work”, Laser Physics Letters, 10, 2013 - to the article


Martine C. Meinke et al., “Comparison of different cutaneous carotenoid sensors and influence of age, skin type, and kinetic changes subsequent to intake of a vegetable extract”, Journal of Biomedical Optics 21 (10), October 2016 - to the article


MC Meinke et al., "Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy to monitor cutaneous carotenoids during supplementation of fruit and vegetable extracts in vivo", Skin Research Technology, 1-4, 2017 - to the article


MC Meinke et al., “Influences of Orally Taken Carotenoid-Rich Curly Kale Extract on Collagen I / Elastin Index of the Skin”, Nutrients, 9, 2017 - to the article


Ruo-Xi Yu et al., “Spectroscopic biofeedback on cutaneous carotenoids as part of a prevention program could be effective to raise health awareness in adolescents”, Journal of Biophotonics, 1-12, 2013 - to the article