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Medical Studies



No medical device approval has been applied for for the biozoom measuring devices. They may therefore not be used for medical diagnoses. Nevertheless, they are used by renowned clinics to clarify specific questions in medical research. There are several reasons for this: on the one hand it is due to the high measurement accuracy when detecting biomarkers such as carotenoids and on the other hand it is due to the non-invasive measurement technology of the MSRRS sensor. Because this measurement technique allows the researchers to generate more data than would be possible with the classic analysis by taking blood. This is a great advantage, because the more data that can be collected as part of a study, the more precisely the medical questions can be answered. In addition, ethical aspects and the associated higher costs speak against taking blood too frequently.

The use of the biozoom measuring devices for clinical questions is widely spread. It ranges from neonatal research to nutritional studies to questions in space research.  The following brief description of the study results is based in most cases on the abstracts published in the studies.

Vegetable Study Japan  2021

Although vegetables are beneficial to human health, recommended intakes of vegetables are not met in many countries. In order to assess vegetable intake, it is important to understand vegetable consumption. Therefore, researchers conducted a cross-sectional and interventional study in 26 healthy subjects (50% female; 37.0 ± 8.9 years) and estimated vegetable intake based on cutaneous carotenoid levels (CCL) measured with the biozoom scanner . Researchers hypothesized that vegetable juice intake  may increase CCL. The participants consumed vegetable juice containing 350 g of vegetables daily for 4 weeks. Blood carotenoid levels and CCL were measured for 12 weeks. Cross-sectional analysis showed a significant positive correlation between CCL and vegetable intake (r=0.489). Consumption of vegetable juice significantly increased CCL and blood levels of α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene (p<0.05). The correlation coefficient between blood levels and CCL for lycopene was smaller (r = 0.001) than that between blood levels and CCL for α-carotene (r = 0.523) and β-carotene (r = 0.460), probably due to differences in bioavailability. In summary, the researchers conclude that non-invasive skin carotenoid measurements are effective in determining vegetable intake and vegetable juice significantly increases CCL. Hayashi, H.; Sato, I.; Suganuma: "Cutaneous Carotenoid Level Measured by Multiple Spatially Resolved Reflection Spectroscopy Sensors Correlates with Vegetable Intake and Is Increased by Continual Intake of Vegetable Juice"; Diseases 2021, 9, 4. More about the study here


Study Metabolic Syndrome Japan - 2020

To validate the usefulness of non-invasive measurements of skin carotenoids to detect vegetable consumption and to clarify the relationships between skin carotenoid levels and biomarkers of circulatory disorders and  metabolic syndrome, the researchers conducted a Cross-sectional study performed at a residential health screening (n=811; 58% women; 49.5, 15.1 years). Skin and serum carotenoid levels were measured using reflectance spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Vegetable consumption was estimated using a diet questionnaire. The values of 9 biomarkers (body mass index [BMI], pulse wave velocity [baPWV], systolic and diastolic blood pressure [SBP and DBP], homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], blood insulin, fasting blood glucose [FBG], Triglycerides [TGs] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) were determined. Skin carotenoid levels were significantly positively correlated with serum total carotenoids and vegetable consumption (r = 0.678 and 0.210, respectively). In women, higher In women, higher skin carotenoid levels were significantly associated with lower BMI, SBP, DBP, HOMA-IR, blood insulin and insulin and TG levels, and higher HDL-C levels. In men, they also correlated significantly with BMI and blood insulin levels. In summary, dermal carotenoid levels can provide an indication of vegetable intake, and higher levels of dermal carotenoids are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.​ Matsumoto, M.; Suganuma, H; Shimizu, S.; Hayashi, H.; Sawada, K.; Tokuda, I.; Ihara, K.; Nakaji, S.; "Skin Carotenoid Level as an Alternative Marker of Serum Total Carotenoid Concentration and Vegetable Intake Correlates with Biomarkers of Circulatory Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome"; Nutrients 2020, 12, 1825

Study on UVB erythema and UVA pigmentation - 2020

Background: Photoprotection of human skin is determined as the ability of sunscreens to prevent UV-B radiation-induced erythema and UV-A radiation-induced pigmentation. It is clear that, in addition to sunscreen, oral carotenoid supplementation can protect human skin from UVB-ray-induced erythema. It is not known whether this also applies to pigmentation induced by UVA radiation. Objective: Clinical evaluation of the photoprotective effects of daily carotenoid supplementation against UVA radiation-induced pigmentation. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 subjects (Fitzpatrick types II-IV) received Nutrilite™ Multi Carotene Supplement or placebo for 12 weeks. UVB-induced minimal erythematous dose (MED), UVA-induced minimal pigmentation dose (MPPD) and skin carotenoid levels were measured at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the intervention. Skin color was assessed by experienced clinical assessors and by colorimetry. The carotenoid levels in the skin were measured with the Biozoom® device. Results: In the intervention group, compared to the placebo group, a significant increase was observed in (a) skin carotenoid levels, (b) UVB-induced MED and (c) UVA-induced MPPD values measured by colorimetry became. Conclusion: Daily supplementation with carotenoids protects human skin from both UVB-induced erythema and UVA-induced pigmentation. Baswn, SM; Marini A.; Klosner, A.E.; Jaenicke, T; Leverett, J.; Murry, M.; Gellenbeck, KW; Krutmann, J.: "Orally administered mixed carotenoids protect human skin against ultraviolet A-induced skin pigmentation: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial"; Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine 2020;36:219-225


Study supplementation with fruit and vegetable juice - 2017

Background: A diet rich in fruit and vegetables and a healthy lifestyle are becoming increasingly important in industrialized countries to counteract oxidative stress and promote health. For many years it has been possible to test human skin carotenoids non-invasively using resonance Raman spectroscopy systems and spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy. Methods: Ten volunteers took a commercially available fruit and vegetable extract daily for a period of 5 weeks. A second group served as a control group and did not take any supplements (10 subjects). To non-invasively monitor the status of cutaneous carotenoids, an optical sensor based on multiple spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy was used once a week. Results: The study was able to show that taking the supplement significantly increased the skin carotenoid levels of the young adults by 50%. The control group without supplementation also showed significantly increased values, namely by 10%, which could be due to the fact that their lifestyle was controlled. Conclusion: The results show that biofeedback by measuring skin carotenoids can improve the lifestyle of young adults and that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables directly or as a drink can significantly increase the concentration of skin carotenoids. Meinke, MC; Lohan, S.B.; Köcher, W.; Magnussen, B.; Darvin, ME; Lademann, J.; "Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy to monitor cutaneous carotenoids during supplementation of fruit and vegetable extracts in vivo"; Skin Research Technology; 2017:1-4

Use in space exploration NASA Q1- 2016

The fact that our antioxidant measurement is medically and scientifically recognized internationally is made clear by its use in NASA's space program. The biozoom measuring devices are part of the "Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) Campaign" project and will be used in the USA for the upcoming experiment "Effects of 30 days of Isolation and Confinement on Hippocampal Volume and Visuo-Spatial Memory" as well as in the international one NASA project in China. The primary goal is to investigate the influence of isolation in the HERA Habitat on the structural and functional plasticity of the brain, cognitive performance and subjective well-being and their relationships with neurophysiological biomarkers. The projects are funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR)scientific  supported.


Scientific validation of the biozoom MSRRS sensor - 2016

The non-invasive measurement of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin is one of the most important tasks to study skin physiology in vivo. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopy are the most commonly used non-invasive techniques in dermatology and skin physiology. In the present study, an improved method based on multiple spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy (MSRRS) was presented. The measurement results obtained were compared with those of resonance Raman spectroscopy. It is considered the "gold standard" method in this area. A strong correlation was found for the total carotenoid concentration (R = 0.83) and lycopene (R = 0.80). The measurement stability has been confirmed to be better than 10% in the entire temperature range from 5 °C to + 30 °C and in the pressure contact between skin and MSRRS sensor from 800 PA to 18 000 PA. In addition, blood samples from the subjects were analyzed for carotenoid concentration. The MSRRS sensor was calibrated to blood carotenoid concentrations, resulting in a prediction with a correlation of R=0.79. Using the blood carotenoids it could be shown that the MSRRS skin measurements are not influenced by the Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI. Darvin, E.; Magnussen, B.; Lademann, J.; Köcher, W.; "Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy forin vivodetermination of carotenoids in human skin and blood"; Laser Physics Letters, 2016, volume 13, number 9


Neonatal Scientific Study - 2015

The antioxidant potential of pregnant women and newborns was investigated in a dissertation at the University of Rostock. It is known that there is a conditional increase in free radicals during pregnancy and childbirth. Up to 80% of newborn deaths in the first month of life are caused by diseases related to the formation of free radicals. This study showed that during labor pains and one day after birth, the mother's antioxidant potential decreases sharply, while the newborn has a significantly higher level. In some cases, the measurements could even be used to predict the due date.

School study - 2014

Cutaneous carotenoid concentration correlates with a person's overall antioxidant status and can be seen as a biomarker of diet and lifestyle. 50 high school students were first measured spectroscopically for their cutaneous carotenoid concentrations in a static phase, followed by an intervention phase with biofeedback of their readings, this time leading a healthy lifestyle and eating a healthy diet. The subjects had higher carotenoid concentrations than found in previous studies. A significant correlation between healthy lifestyle habits and a high antioxidant status was found. Subjects improved their dietary habits and significantly increased their carotenoid concentrations during the intervention. A follow-up five months later showed a consolidation of the increase. The research shows that a healthy diet and a balanced lifestyle are correlated with a high concentration of cutaneous antioxidants and that spectroscopic biofeedback measurement of cutaneous carotenoids as part of an integrated prevention program is a feasible and effective means of increasing health awareness among adolescents._cc781905-5cde -3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_Ruo-Xi, Y.; Köcher, W.; Darvin, M.; Buttner, M.; Jung, S.; Na Lee, B.; Klotter, C.; Hurrelmann, K.; Meinke, M.; Lademann, J.; "Spectroscopic biofeedback on cutaneous carotenoids as part of a prevention program could be effective to raise health awareness in adolescents"; Journal of Biophotonics, 2014 Nov;7(11-12):926-37


Study on the influence of shift work as a stressor on antioxidant levels  - 2013

Laser spectroscopic methods, such as B. the resonance Raman spectroscopy and the reflection spectroscopy, allow us for the first time to investigate the antioxidant status in human skin non-invasively by measuring the carotenoid concentration. The individual antioxidative concentration of the human skin is influenced on the one hand by eating habits and on the other hand by stressors such as e.g. B. shift work. Shift work is associated with insomnia and gastrointestinal disorders, among others, due to disruption of circadian rhythm and melatonin secretion. In the present study, the cutaneous antioxidant concentration of midwives was determined for the first time using reflectance spectroscopy and the results were related to shift work. Seven midwives participated in the study. A compact, LED-based scanner system was used for the non-invasive measurement of carotenoids in human skin. The measuring principle is based on reflection spectroscopy. The present study suggests that cutaneous antioxidant status can be adversely affected by shift work. Despite numerous international strategies of programs that encourage a healthier diet, there are only a few measures aimed at stress reduction and stress management. In this area, the use of reflection spectroscopic investigation methods could play an important role in the future. Maeter, H.; Briese, V.; Gerber, B.; Darvin, ME; Lademan, J.; Olbertz, DM; "Case study: in vivo stress diagnostics by spectroscopic determination of the cutaneous carotenoid antioxidant concentration in midwives depending on shift work"; Laser Physics Letters, 2013, 10


Scientific validation of the biozoom sensor with grating spectrometer - 2012

Based on important in vivo and in vitro studies on human skin, it is believed that free radical-induced damage, including premature skin aging and the development of skin diseases such as cancer, can be prevented by carotenoids as powerful antioxidants. Available techniques suitable for the non-invasive determination of carotenoids in human skin include resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS). For the RS, an LED-based miniaturized spectroscopic system (MSS) was developed for the non-invasive measurement of carotenoids in human skin. The optimization and subsequent calibration of the MSS was performed using the RRS. A strong correlation between the RS and the carotenoid concentration determined with the RRS system could be shown for human skin in vivo (R = 0.88) and for bovine udder skin in vitro (R = 0.81). Darvin, M.; Sandhagen, C.; Köcher, W.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.; Meinke, C.; "Comparsion of two methods for noninvasive determination of carotenoids in human and animal skin: Raman spectroscopy versus reflection spectroscopy"; Journal of Biophotonics 2012 Jul;5(7):550-8


Scientific Collaboration

In the field of carotenoid measurement, biozoom has been working with Prof. Dr. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Lademann together. Prof. Lademann is one of the most important experts for the non-invasive measurement of carotenoids in the skin.  As an internationally renowned scientist, he conducts research at the interface between dermatology, pharmacology and biophysics. In 2000 he was appointed professor of dermatology at the Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin. He is editor of the journals "Skin Pharmacology and Physiology", "Journal of Biomedical Optics", "Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology", "Laser Physics Letters", "Cosmetic" and the open access "Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering"._cc781905- 5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_ From 2003 to 2008 he was President of the "International Society of Skin Pharmacology and Physiology". Since 2008 he has been a member of the Cosmetics Committee of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Germany). In 2010 he became a member of the lighting technology standards committee, "Radiology" department, at the Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. (DIN) and was admitted to the Leibniz Society for Sciences in Berlin in 2012. He is President of the IFSCC (International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists). 


In the field of heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse measurement, biozoom works with Prof. Dr. Thomas Loew together. Prof. Loew has been a scheduled professor of psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy at the University of Regensburg since 2001 and is chief physician of the psychosomatic department there, as well as chief physician of the psychosomatic ward at the Donaustauf Clinic. From 2004 to 2009 he was 1st Chairman of the German Society for Psychosomatic Medicine and Medical Psychotherapy, which emerged in 2006 from the German Society for Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy and the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy and represents the field in Germany. (detailed representation see

Further publications about the use of the Biozoom scanner in scientific studies

Bich Na Lee et al., “Influence of chemotherapy on the antioxidant status of human skin”, ANTICANCER RESEARCH 36, 4086-4096, 2016 -go to Article

Maxim M. Darvin et al., "Comparison of two methods for noninvasive determination of carotenoids in human and animal skin: Raman spectroscopy versus reflection spectroscopy", Journal of Biophotonics 5, no. 7, 550-558, 2012 -go to Article

Maxim M. Darvin et al., "Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood", Laser Physics Letters, 13, 2016 -go to Article

Kerstin H. Gehlich et al., "Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with improved mental and cognitive health in older adults from non-Western developing countries", Public Health Nutrition, 1-8, 2018 -go to Article

Kerstin H. Gehlich et al., "Consumption of fruits and vegetables: improved physical health, mental health, physical functioning and cognitive health in older adults from 11 European countries", Aging & Mental Health, 2019 -go to Article

Sora Jung et al., "Antioxidants in Asian-Korean and Caucasian skin: The influence of nutrition and stress", Skin Pharmacol Physiol 27, 293-302, 2014 -go to Article

Julia Klein et al., "Noninvasive measurements of carotenoids in bovine udder by reflection spectroscopy", Journal of Biomedical Optics, 17(10), October 2012 -go to Article

Julia Klein et al., "Analysis of the correlation dermal and blood carotenoids in female cattle by optical method", Journal of Biomedical Optics 18(6), 2013 -go to Article 

J. Lademann et al., "Skin carotenoids as marker substances for nutrition and stress", Cosmetic Medicine, 1.15, 2015 -go to Article

J. Lademann et al., "Cutaneous carotenoids: The mirror of lifestyle", Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 27, 201-207, 2014 -to the articlel

Hanne Meater, "The cutaneously measurable antioxidant potential of pregnant women and newborns", dissertation University of Rostock, 2012 -Download

H. Maeter, "Case study: in vivo stress diagnostics by spectroscopic determination of the cutaneous carotenoid antioxidant concentration in midwives depending on shift work", Laser Physics Letters, 10, 2013 -go to Article

Martine C. Meinke et al., "Comparison of different cutaneous carotenoid sensors and influence of age, skin type, and kinetic changes subsequent to intake of a vegetable extract", Journal of Biomedical Optics 21(10), October 2016 -go to Article

MC Meinke et al., "Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy to monitor cutaneous carotenoids during supplementation of fruit and vegetable extracts in vivo", Skin Research Technology, 1-4, 2017 -go to Article

MC Meinke et al., "Influences of Orally Taken Carotenoid-Rich Curly Kale Extract on Collagen I/Elastin Index of the Skin", Nutrients, 9, 2017 -go to Article

Ruo-Xi Yu et al., “Spectroscopic biofeedback on cutaneous carotenoids as part of a prevention program could be effective to raise health awareness in adolescents”, Journal of Biophotonics, 1-12, 2013 -go to Article

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